Estudio de la toma de decisiones en una variante de la Iowa Gambling Task.
Arana J. M.
Meilán, J. J. G.
We apply a variant of the Iowa Gambling Task which is changed from the original (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio & Anderson, 1994), in the method of presenting the options in order to reduce the cognitive penetrability of the test. We study decision-making through the number and type of choices, the time required by the subject to make the decision and the valuation of the options.
14 participants had to choose between 4 decks of cards that were presented in pairs. After every choice the subjects always received a financial reward and occasionally also a loss. Two of the decks had a very large gain or loss that were long-term detrimental, while the other two provide smaller gains and losses which were beneficial in the long term. Participants underwent 4 blocks of 30 trials each and after each block the subjects were asked to order the options, according to their opinion, as being from the most beneficial to the most harmful.
The average of number and type of choices showed a stronger preference for both good options after the 2nd block, while valuation of these both options as being beneficial was not significantly evident until the 4th block. Moreover, the decision times decreased significantly in the 4th block for both good options but not for the bad ones. The results can be interpreted under the assumption that of an unconscious guided choice behavior before conscious knowledge for the reasons for that choice (Damasio, 1994).